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100 rules of grammar

grmmar rules ok

ที่มา: https://www.facebook.com/EnglishForAllCompetition/posts/186192558241444

คลิก→ ย้อนกลับ ปะหน้าบทความ

เรียนท่านผู้อ่าน
เมื่อลงมือแปลหัวข้อซึ่งเป็นคำอธิบายของผู้เขียนประกอบกับตัวอย่างที่เขายกมาไปเรื่อย ๆ ผมรู้สึกว่ามีบางข้อที่ผมไม่เห็นด้วย, หรือยังสงสัยในสิ่งที่เขาอธิบาย, หรือต้นฉบับอาจจะพิมพ์ผิด – และข้อนั้น ผมจะเว้นว่างไว้ไม่แปล, เข้าใจตรงกันอย่างนี้นะครับ
- พิพัฒน์ -


 1. Some nouns always take a singular verb.

Scenery, advice, information, machinery, stationery, furniture, abuse, fuel, rice, gram, issue, bedding, repair, news, mischief, poetry, business, economics, physics, mathematics, classic, ethics, athletics, innings, gallows.

 noun บางตัว ใช้ verb เอกพจน์เสมอ
(A) The scenery of Kashmir are enchanting. (Incorrect)
(B) The scenery of Kashmir is enchanting. (Correct)
(A) He has given advices. (Incorrect)
(B) He has given advice. (Correct)
(A) The Indian team defeated the English by innings. (Incorrect)
(B) The Indian team defeated the English by an innings. (Correct)
(A) Mathematics are a difficult subject. (Incorrect)
(B) Mathematics is a good / difficult subject. (Correct)
Note if you have to indicate that the number of news, advice, information or furniture is more than one, the examples listed below can be followed:

แต่ถ้าต้องการระบุว่า noun พวกนี้มีหลายชิ้น ก็ใช้ตามตัวอย่างข้างล่างนี้

(A) I have a lot of news to tell you. (Incorrect)
(B) He has sold many pieces of his furniture. (Correct)


 2. Some nouns are singular in form, but they are used as plural nouns and always take a plural verb.

Cattle, gentry, vermin, peasantry, artillery, people, clergy, company, police.

noun บางตัวมีรูปเอกพจน์  แต่ถือว่าเป็นพหูพจน์ และใช้ verb พหูพจน์เสมอ
(A) The cattle is grazing in the ground. (Incorrect)
(B) The cattle are grazing in the ground. (Correct)
(A) The clergy is in the church. (Incorrect)
(B) The clergy are in the church. (Correct)


 3. Some nouns are always used in a plural form and always take a plural verb.

Trousers, scissors, spectacles, stockings, shorts, measles, goods, alms, premises, thanks, tidings, annals, chattels, etc.

noun บางตัวมีรูปพหูพจน์เท่านั้น และก็ต้องใช้ verb เป็นพหูพจน์ด้วย
(A) Where is my trousers? (Incorrect)
(B) Where are my trousers? (Correct)
(A) Spectacles is now a costly item. (Incorrect)
(B) Spectacles are now a costly item. (Correct)


 4. There are some nouns that indicate length, measure, money, weight or number. When they are preceded by a numeral, they remain unchanged in form.

noun บางตัว มีความหมายเป็นหน่วยนับ บอก ความยาว, เงิน, น้ำหนัก, จำนวน - เมื่อถูกนำหน้าด้วยคำบอกตัวเลข, noun พวกนี้ก็ยังคงไม่เปลี่ยนรูป
Foot, meter, pair, score, dozen, head, year, hundred, thousand, million.
(A) It is a three – years degree course. (Incorrect)
(B) It is a three – year degree course. (Correct)
(A) I have ten dozens of shoes. (Incorrect)
(B) I have ten dozen of shoes. (Correct)


 5. Collective nouns such a jury, public, team, committee, government, audience, orchestra, company, etc. are used both as singular; otherwise the verb will be plural

(A) The jury was divided in this case. (Incorrect)
(B) The jury were divided in this case. (Correct)
(A) The team have not come as yet. (Incorrect)
(B) The team has not come as yet. (Correct)


 6. Some nouns have one meaning in the singular and another in the plural:

noun บางตัว ในรูปเอกพจน์ และรูปพหูพจน์  มีความหมายต่างกัน
Advice = counsel advices = information
Air = atmosphere  airs = proud
Authority = command, • authorities = persons in power
Good = wise • goods = property
Iron = metal • irons = fetters, chains
Force = strength • forces = army
Content = satisfaction, • contents = things contained
Physic = medicine • physics = physical sciences,
Respect = regards • respects = compliments
Work = job • works = compositions, factories,.
Quarter = one – fourth • quarters = houses
Examples
(A) Air is necessary for human life.
(B) It is bad to put on airs.
(A) I have eaten one quarter of the cake.
(B) I live in the government quarters.


7. People are often confused or they commit mistake in the use of certain nouns.

noun บางตัว คนใช้มักรู้สึกสับสน หรือใช้ผิด

(A) Lecturership is wrong: lectureship is correct.
(a) There are twenty candidates for lecturership. Incorrect
(b) There are twenty candidates for lectureship. Correct
(B) Freeship is wrong; free – studentship is correct.
(a) Ramesh has applied for freeship. Incorrect
(b) Ramesh has applied for free – studentship. Correct
(C) Boarding is wrong; boarding house is correct.
(a) Mohan lives in a boarding. Incorrect
(b) Mohan lives in a boarding house. Correct
(D) Family members is wrong; members of the family is correct.
(a) Vivek and Ramesh are my family members. Incorrect
(b) Vivek and Ramesh are the members of my family. Correct
(E) English teacher is wrong; the teacher of English is correct.
(a) Dr. Raina is our English teacher. Incorrect
(b) Dr. Raina is our teacher of English. Correct
(F) Cousin – brother or sister is wrong; only cousin is correct.
(a) Geeta is my cousin sister. Incorrect
(b) Geeta is my cousin. Correct
(G) Room in a compartment or a bench means unoccupied set.
(a) There is no room on this bench. Correct
(H) Our, yours, hers, theirs are correct.
(a) This house is our’s. Incorrect
(b) This house is ours. Correct
Note: The same principle applies to ‘yours ‘, ‘hers’ and ‘theirs’.
(I) Wages means punishments when used in singular.
(a) The wages of sin is death.
(J) It also means charges for the labour when used in plural sense.
(b) The wages of daily workers have been raised.


 8. Also remember the subtle difference in the usage of these pairs of nouns

ให้ระวังการใช้ noun บางคู่ ที่ใช้ต่างกันไม่ชัดนัก
(A) The noun ‘habit’ applies only to an individual whereas ‘custom’ applies to a society or country.
(a) Poor children often become a victim of bad habits.
(b) Tribal in India have many interesting customs.
(B) ‘Cause’ product a result, while ‘reason’ explains or justifies a cause.
(a) Scientists try to find out the cause of a phenomenon.
(b) You have a good reason to be pleased with your students.
(C) ‘Man’ is used in ordinary sense while ‘gentleman’ is a man of character.
(a) Man is mortal.
(b) He is a gentleman at large.
(D) ‘Men’ - plural of man: ‘people’ is used for persons.
(a) There are five men in the room.
(b) The people of Bihar are simple.
(E) ‘Shade’ – a place sheltered from the sun; ‘shadow’ – the shade of a distinct form or object.
(a) The villagers sat under the shade of trees.
(b) He is even afraid of his own shadow.
(F) ‘Cost’ – amount paid by the shopkeeper; ‘price’ – amount paid by the customer.
(a) The cost of production of automobile items has gone up.
(b) Sometimes the buyers have to pay higher price for necessary items.
(G) ‘House’ – a building to live in: ‘Home’ – one’s native place.
(a) Quarters area houses allotted to us for a definite period.
(b) My home town is Muzaffapur.
(H) ‘House’ – a building to live in; ‘Home’ - one’s native place.
(a) The shopkeepers welcome customer with smiles.
(b) The lawyer discusses the cases of his clients. 


 9. A pronoun must agree with its antecedent in person, number and gender.

pronoun ต้องสอดคล้องกับคำซึ่งแสดงลักษณะบุคคล  จำนวน และเพศ ที่วางอยู่ข้างหน้ามัน

For example:
Every man must bring his luggage.
All students must do their home work.
Each of the girls must carry her own bag.
Each students must bring their books.
Each student must bring his books.


 ในการใช้  ‘everybody’ ‘everyone’, ‘anybody’, และ  ‘each’ ต้องใช้ pronoun ให้สอดคล้องกับเนื้อหา แต่ถ้าเนื้อหาไม่ได้ระบุเพศ  ก็ให้ใช้ pronoun ที่แสดงเพศชาย

10. While using ‘everybody’ ‘everyone’, ‘anybody’, and ‘each’ the pronoun of the masculine or the feminine gender is used according to the content.
I shall be happy to help each of the boys in this practice.
But when the sex is not mentioned, we use the pronoun of the masculine gender.
Anyone can do this job if he tries.
Each of the six boys in the class has finished their tasks. - Incorrect
Each of the six boys in the class has finished his task. - Correct

 คลิกอ่าน คำอธิบายเพิ่มเติม


 11. The pronoun ‘one’ must be followed by ‘one’s’.

pronoun คือ one ให้ตามด้วย pronoun one’s 
One must finish his task in time. Incorrect
One must finish one’s task in time. Correct


 12. Enjoy, apply, resign, acquit, drive, exert, avail, pride, absent, etc., when used as transitive verbs, always take a reflexive pronoun after them. When ‘self’ is added to ‘my’, ‘your’, ‘him’, ‘her’, and ‘it’, and ‘selves’ to our and them – they are known as reflexive pronouns.

verb พวกนี้ คือ Enjoy, apply, resign, acquit, drive, exert, avail, pride, absent ฯลฯ เมื่อใช้เป็น transitive verb ให้เติม self ต่อท้าย ‘my’, ‘your’, ‘him’, ‘her’,  ‘it’ และเติม ‘selves’ ต่อท้าย our,  them
He absented from the class.
He absented himself form the class.


 13. ‘Who’ denotes the subject and ‘whom’ is used for the object?

who ใช้แสดงถึงประธาน, whom ใช้แสดงถึงกรรม
Whom do you think won the award? Incorrect
Who do you think won the award? Correct
Who area you talking to? Incorrect
Whom are your talking to? Correct


 14. When two or more singular nouns are joined together by ‘either or’; ‘neither nor’, ; and ‘or’, the pronoun is singular.

เมื่อ noun เอกพจน์ตั้งแต่ 2 ตัวขึ้นไป เชื่อมกันด้วย ‘either or’,  ‘neither nor’, , หรือ  ‘or’ , pronoun ที่ใช้ ต้องเป็น เอกพจน์
Either Ram or Shyam will give their book. Incorrect
Either Ram or shyam will give his book. Correct


 15. When a singular and a plural noun are joined by ‘or’, ‘nor’, the pronoun must be plural.

เมื่อ noun เอกพจน์ และพหูพจน์ เชื่อมกันด้วย or หรือ nor, pronoun ที่ใช้ ต้องเป็น พหูพจน์

Either the engineer or his mechanics failed in his duty. Incorrect
Either the engineer or his mechanics failed in their duty. Correct


 16. ‘Whose’ is used for living persons and ‘which’ for lifeless objects.

whose ใช้กับ คน, which ใช้กับวัตถุ
Which book did you select? Incorrect
Whose photograph is lying there? Correct
What book do you read? Incorrect
Which book do you read? Correct


 17. ‘Each other’ is used when there are two subjects or objects and ‘one another’ when there are more than two.

 Rameo and Juliet loved each other
Those five friends, who are sitting there, love one another.
All the students of the class are friendly; they love each other. Incorrect
All the students of the class are friendly. Correct


 18. When a pronoun stands for a collective noun, it must be in the singular number and in the neuter gender if the collective noun is viewed as a whole.

เราใช้ pronoun เป็นรูปเอกพจน์ ถ้าแทน collective noun (สมุหนาม) และ ใช้ pronoun เป็นรูปไร้เพศ ถ้าสมุหนามนั้น มีความหมายเป็นหนึ่งเดียว
The jury gave ‘its’ verdict.
Here the ‘jury’ gives the idea of one whole.
If the collective noun conveys the idea of separate individuals comprising the whole, the pronoun standing for it must be plural.

แต่ถ้าสมุหนาม หมายถึงหลายสิ่งมารวมกัน , pronoun ที่ใช้ต้องเป็นพหูพจน์
 
The jury were divided in their opinions.
Here, the ‘jury’ gives the idea of several individuals.
The team are divided in this opinion about playing on Sunday. Incorrect
The team are divided in their opinion about playing on Sunday. Correct


 19. If pronouns of different persons are to be used together in a sentence, the serial order of persons should be as follows; second person + third + first person in a good normal sentences. But in fault is to be confessed, the order will be; first person + second person + third person.

You, he and I have finished the work. Normal sentences
I, you and he are to blame. Confession

ถ้าสรรพนามบุรุษที่ 1, 2, 3 มาอยู่ในประโยคเดียวกัน  ให้เรียงลำดับดังนี้

กรณีปกติ: บุรุษที่ 2 →บุรุษที่ 3→บุรุษที่ 1

กรณียอมรับความผิด: บุรุษที่ 1 →บุรุษที่ 2 →บุรุษที่ 3  

Ram, I and you have finished our studies. Incorrect
You, Ram and I have finished our studies. Correct 


 20. ‘Some’ is used in affirmative sentences to express quantity or degree. ‘Any’ is uses in negative or interrogative sentences.

ใช้ some ในประโยคบอกเล่า เพื่อแสดงปริมาณหรือระดับ, ใช้ any ในประโยคปฏิเสธหรือคำถาม
I shall buy some apples.
I shall not buy any apples.
Have you bought any apples?
But ‘some’ may be correctly used in interrogative sentences which are, in fact, requests.
Will you please give me some milk?
I shall read any book. Incorrect
I shall read some book. Correct
Have you bought some apples? Incorrect
Have you bought any apples? Correct


 21. The use of ‘few’, ‘a few’’ and ‘the few’ should be used with care. They denote ‘number’.

ต้องระวัง เมื่อจะใช้ few, a few, the few มันแสดงถึงจำนวน
‘Few’ means ‘not many’. It is the opposite of many. A ‘few’ is positive and means ‘some at least’. It is the opposite of none. ‘The few’ means ‘whatever there is’.
A few men are free from fault. Incorrect
Few men are free from fault. Correct
Here the sense is negative and thus ‘a few’ is wrong.
Few boys will pass in the examination. Incorrect
A few boys will pass in the examination. Correct
Here the sense is positive and thus ‘few’ is incorrect.
I have already read a few books that are on the bookshelf. Incorrect
I have already read t he few books that are on the bookshelf. Correct
Here the sense is ‘whatever there is’.


 22. Use of ‘less’ and ‘fewer’

การใช้ less และ fewer ตามตัวอย่าง
‘Less’ denote quantity and ‘fewer’ denote number.
No less than fifty persons were killed. Incorrect
No fewer than fifty persons were killed. Correct
There are no fewer than five litres of water in the jug. Incorrect
There are no less than five litres of water in the jug. Correct


 23. Use of little, a little, the little.

การใช้  little, a little และ  the little ตามตัวอย่าง
‘Little’ means ‘hardly any’
There is a little hope of his recovery. Incorrect
There is a little hope of his recovery correct
‘A little’ means ‘some’, though not much.
Little knowledge is a dangerous thing. Incorrect
A little knowledge is a dangerous thing. Correct
‘The little means ‘not much but all there is’.
The little milk that is in the pot may be used for the patient. Incorrect
The little milk that is in the pot may be used for the patient. Correct


 24. Use of elder, older.

older ใช้กับคนและสิ่งของ,  elder ใช้กับคนในครอบครัว
‘Older’ refers to persons as well as things and is followed by ‘than’.
Ram is elder than all other boys of this area. Incorrect
Ram is older than all other boys of this area. Correct
‘Elder’ is used for members of the family.
Suresh is my older brother. Incorrect
Suresh is my elder brother. Correct


 25. normally ‘than’ is used in the comparative degree, but with words like superior, inferior, senior, junior, prior, anterior, posterior and prefer ‘to’ is used.

ตามปกติ than ใช้ต่อท้าย adjective ขั้น “กว่า” เช่น bigger than, smaller than แต่ถ้าเป็นคำพวกนี้ superior, inferior, senior, junior, prior, anterior, posterior และ  prefer ให้ตามด้วย to ในความหมายว่า “กว่า”

Shelley is junior than Wordsworth. Incorrect
Shelley is junior to Wordsworth. Correct
I prefer reading than sleeping. Incorrect
I prefer reading to sleeping. Correct


 26. when a comparison is made by using a comparative followed by ‘than’, the word ‘other’ must be exclude the thing compared form the class of things with which it is compared.

ขอให้สังเกต การใช้คำเพื่อเปรียบเทียบ โดยใช้คำว่า than และ other 
He is stronger than any man. Incorrect
He is stronger than any other man. Correct
‘Any man’ includes the man himself and thus the sentences will be absurd.


 27. In some cases, the comparison is subtle and must be given proper attention.

การใช้คำเพื่อเปรียบเทียบ บางครั้งก็ละเอียดอ่อนมาก ต้องระวังเป็นพิเศษ ตามตัวอย่าง
The climate of Ranchi is better then Gaya. Incorrect
Here the comparison should be between the climate of Ranchi and the climate of Gaya.
The climate of Ranchi is better than the climate of Gaya. Correct
Or
The climate of Ranchi is better than that of Gaya. Correct
‘That of’ means ‘the climate of’
If the traits are in plural, it will be ‘those of’.
The clothes of DCM are better than those of Mafatalal.
The scenery of Kashmir is better than Shimla. Incorrect
The scenery of Kashmir is better than that of shimla. Correct


 28. ‘many a’ is always followed by the singular verb.

เมื่อใช้ many a (man) หรือ many an (engineer) จะต้องตามด้วย noun เอกพจน์ , และ  verb รูปเอกพจน์
Many a man were followed by the singular verb. Incorrect
Many a man was drowned in the area. Correct


 29. If the subject is ‘the number of’ the singular verb is used.

เมื่อใช้ The number of + คำนามพหูพจน์ เป็นประธาน, verb จะต้องเป็นรูป เอกพจน์
The number of students are very small. Incorrect
The number of students is very small. Correct


 30. When ‘as well as’, ‘along with’, together with’, ‘no less than’, ‘in addition to’ and ‘not’ and ‘with’ join two subjects, the verb will be according to the first subject.

เมื่อมีประธาน 2 คำ/กลุ่มคำ ที่เชื่อมด้วย ‘as well as’, ‘along with’, together with’, ‘no less than’, ‘in addition to’ , ‘not’ และ ‘with’ จะต้องใช้ verb ให้สอดคล้องกับประธานตัวแรก
Ram, as well as his ten friends, are going. Incorrect
Ram, as well as his ten friends, is going. Correct
The teacher, along with the students, were going. Incorrect
The teacher, along with the students, was going. Correct


 31. ‘A great many’ is always followed by a plural noun and a plural verb.

‘A great many’ ตามด้วย noun และ verb รูปพหูพจน์
A great many student has been declared successful. Incorrect
A great many students have been declared successful. Correct


 32. If two subjects are joined by ‘either or’, ‘neither nor’, the verb agrees with the subject that is near.

เมื่อประธาน 2 ตัวเชื่อมด้วย ‘either or’ หรือ  ‘neither nor’ verb ที่ใช้ ต้องผันตามประธานตัวที่อยู่ใกล้

Either Ramesh or I are to do this work. Incorrect
Either Ramesh or I am to do this work. Correct
Neither he nor his friends is reading. Incorrect
Neither he nor his friends are reading correct


 33. When two singular nouns joined by ‘and’ point out the same thing or person, the verb will be singular.

เมื่อคำนาม 2 ตัวเชื่อมด้วย and แต่ความหมายสื่อว่ามันคือคนเดียวหรือสิ่งเดียวกัน ให้ใช้รูปเอกพจน์ 
Bread and butter make a good breakfast. Incorrect
Bread and butter makes a good breakfast. Correct
The collector and the District Magistrate are on leave. Incorrect
The collector and District Magistrate is on leave. Correct


 34. ‘One of’ always takes a plural noun after it.

one of ตามด้วย noun รูปพหูพจน์เสมอ

It is one of the important day in my life. Incorrect
It is one of the important days in my life. Correct


 35. Use of ‘not only’ and ‘but also; examine the sentences given below:

ระวังการใช้ ‘not only’ … ‘but also’ ให้ถูกต้อง ตามตัวอย่าง
He not only comes for swimming but also for coaching the learners. Incorrect
He comes not only for swimming but also for coaching the learners. Correct


 36. ‘Scarcely’ and ‘hardly’ are followed by ‘when’ and not by ‘than’.

‘Scarcely’ และ  ‘hardly’ ตามด้วย when, ไม่ใช่ตามด้วย than
I had scarcely entered the room than the phone rang. Incorrect
I had scarcely entered the room when the phone rang. Correct


 37. ‘Though’ is followed by ‘yet’ and not by ‘but’.

‘Though (แม้ว่า)’  ตามด้วย ‘yet’  ไม่ใช่ตามด้วย  ‘but’
Though he is poor but he is honest. Incorrect
Though he is poor, yet he is honest. Correct


 38. ‘No sooner’ is followed by ‘than’.

‘No sooner’  ตามด้วย  ‘than’
No sooner had I entered the class when the student stood up. Incorrect
No sooner had I entered the class than the students stood up. Correct


 39. ‘Lest’ must be followed by ‘should’.

‘Lest’   ตามด้วย  ‘should’, (lest มักแปลว่า ด้วยเกรงว่า, ด้วยกลัวว่า) 
Read regularly lest you will fail.
Read regularly lest you should fail.


 40. ‘such’ is followed by ‘as’.

such ตามด้วย  as

He is such a writer that everybody should read his books. Incorrect
He is such a writer as everybody should read his books. Correct


 41. ‘So’ is followed by ‘that’.

so ตามด้วย that (...มาก จนกระทั่ง.../ ...มาก ถึงขนาดที่ ...)
Sarita was popular with her classmate that she always had some people coming to her for advice. - incorrect
Sarita was so popular with her classmate that she always had  some people coming to her for advice. - correct


 42. ‘Unless’ express a condition. It is always used in the negative sense. Thus ‘not’ is never used with ‘unless’.

unless แปลว่า ถ้า...ไม่  หรือ เว้นแต่ ใช้ในความหมายปฏิเสธ
Unless you do not labour hard, you will not pass. Incorrect
Unless you labour hard, you will not pass. Correc 


 43. until expresses time. It has a negative sense and thus ‘not’ should never be used with it.

until “จนกระทั่ง” แสดงถึงเวลา มีความหมายในเชิงปฏิเสธ เมื่อใช้จึงไม่ต้องมีคำว่า not ใส่ลงไปด้วย
Wait here until I do not return. Incorrect
Wait here until I return. Correct


 44. ‘Since’ indicates a point of time and ‘for’ stands for the length of time.

since “ตั้งแต่” นำหน้าจุดของเวลา, for “เป็นเวลา”  นำหน้า ความยาวของเวลา

He has been reading the book since two hours. Incorrect
He has been reading the book for two hours. Correct
Two hours is a length of time and thus ‘for’ is correct.
It has been raining for Monday last. Incorrect
It has been raining since Monday last. Correct


 45. ‘as if’ used to convey the sense of pretension. When ‘as if’ is used in this sense, ‘were’ is used in all cases, even with third person singular.

as if “ราวกับว่า”  - ประธานของประโยค ที่ตามหลัง as if ให้ใช้ were (การเขียนแบบ formal)

He behaves as if he was a king. Incorrect
He behaves as if he were a king. Correct
The sense of time and tense is also very important.  


 46. A past tense in the principal clause is followed by a past tense in the subordinate clause.

ในประโยคที่มีทั้งประโยคหลัก (principal clause) และประโยคอาศัย (subordinate clause)อยู่ด้วยกัน

โดยปกติ ถ้า tense ในประโยคหลัก  เป็น past    ประโยคอาศัยก็เป็น past   ด้วย

แต่มีข้อยกเว้นอยู่ 2 ประการ คือ

(1)ประโยคหลักเป็น past แต่ในประโยคอาศัย อาจจะเป็น present ก็ได้ ถ้ามันเป็นข้อเท็จจริงตลอดกาล

(2)แม้ประโยคหลักจะเป็น past แต่ถ้าในประโยคอาศัยขึ้นต้นด้วย than, tense  ที่ใช้ในประโยคอาศัย ก็ต้องปรับเปลี่ยนให้สอดคล้องกับความหมายในประโยคอาศัย 

He saw that the clock has stopped. Incorrect
He saw that the clock had stopped. Correct
There are, however, two exceptions to this rule:
(1) A past tense in the principal clause may be followed by a present tense in the subordinate clause, when it expresses a universal truth.
The teacher observed that the Earth moved round the sun. Incorrect
The teacher observed that the Earth moves round the sun. Correct
(2) When the subordinate clause is introduced by ‘than’, even if there is past tense in the principal clause, it may be followed by any tense required by the sense in the subordinate clause.
He helped him more than he helped his own children. Incorrect
He helped him more than he helps his own children. Correct


 47. if two actions in a sentence are showing happing in the past, one after the other; the tense of the action happening first should be past perfect and that of the second should be past indefinite.

ในประโยคหนึ่ง ๆ ถ้ามี 2 เหตุการณ์เกิดขึ้นในอดีต, เหตุการณ์ที่เกิดก่อนให้ใช้ past perfect เหตุการณ์ที่เกิดหลัง ให้ใช้ past tense ธรรมดา ๆ 
The patient died before the doctor arrived. Incorrect
The patient had died before the doctor arrived. Correct


 ในกรณีของ if clause ประเภทที่ 3 ซึ่งกล่าวถึง 2 เหตุการณ์ในอดีตที่จบสิ้นไปแล้ว  ให้ใช้ pattern ของประโยค ดังนี้

Past perfect + future perfect
Had + past participle + would + have + past participle

48. Two actions in the past, one depending on the other, should have the sequence as follows:
Past perfect + future perfect
Had + past participle + would + have + past participle
If you had worked hard, you would have succeeded in the examination.
Or
Had you worked hard, you would have succeeded in the examination.
If you would had practiced regularly, you would won the match. Incorrect
If you had practiced regularly, you would have won the match. Correct


 49. If, in a sentence, two actions are indicated and both are to take place in future, the sequence of tense will be as follows:

The principal clause in present indefinite; and the subordinate clause in future indefinite.

นกรณีของ if clause ประเภทที่ 1 ซึ่งกล่าวถึง 2 เหตุการณ์ที่จะเกิดขึ้นในอนาคต     ให้ใช้ pattern ของประโยค ดังนี้

ประโยคหลัก(ตามหลัง if)  ให้ใช้ present simple, ประโยคอาศัย ให้ใช้ future simple 

If I go the Delhi, I shall attend the seminar.
‘If I go to Delhi’ is the principal clause and ‘I shall attend the seminar’ is the subordinate clause.
If it will rain, I shall not attend the meeting. Incorrect
If it rains, I shall not attend the meeting. Correct


 50. When an action has taken place in two clauses of a sentence, it is used in both the clauses according to the requirement.

ในประโยคหนึ่ง ๆ, ถ้ามี action หนึ่ง ๆ เกิดขึ้นใน 2 clause, tense ที่ใช้ในแต่ละ clause ก็ให้ใช้ตามลักษณะความจำเป็นของเนื้อความ

My brother has and is still doing excellent work for his organisation. Incorrect
My brother has done and is still doing excellent work for his organisation. Correct


 51. When there is a sense of continuity, that is, when a thing has taken place in the past and still continue in the present, the prefect continues tense form of t he verb should be used.

เมื่อมีเหตุการณ์ที่เกิดขึ้นในอดีตและต่อเนื่องมาจนถึงปัจจุบัน ให้ใช้ perfect tense

Indian is independent for the last forty – six years. Incorrect
Indian has been independent for the last forty – six years. Correct
The use of article is also an important matter and one must be careful about it.


 ใช้ a นำหน้าคำนามที่ขึ้นต้นด้วยพยัญชนะ หรือ คำที่ขึ้นต้นด้วยสระ แต่มีเสียงพยัญชนะ

ส่วนคำที่ขึ้นต้นด้วยพยัญชนะ แต่มีเสียงสระ (คือเสียง อ. อ่าง) ให้ใช้ an นำหน้า52. before a consonant ‘a’ is used.

A boy, a horse, a woman.
But ‘a’ is also used before words like university, useful, unicorn, union, European, and one, etc., because these words began with a consonant sound.
Here is an university. Incorrect
Here is a university. Correct
An European lives in my area. Incorrect
A European lives in my area. Correct
It is a one - rupees note. Incorrect
It is a one – rupee note. Correct
52. Similarly, words like ‘hour’, ‘honest’, ‘heir’, etc, take ‘an’ before them as they begin with a vowel sound.
I have been waiting for him for a hour. Incorrect
I have been waiting for him for an hour. Correct


 53. Some important points to remember regarding the omission of a/an/the:

หลักที่ควรจำเกี่ยวกับการไม่ต้องเติม article คือ a, an, the หน้า noun มีดังนี้
1. Before a common noun used in its widest sense, e.g.
Man us mortal.
2. before names of materials.
Bronze is a useful metal.
3. Usually before proper names.
Patina is the capital of Bihar.
4. Before abstract nouns used in general sense.
Beauty fascinates people.
5. before language.
English is a very popular language in the Delhi University.
6. Before ‘school’ ‘college’, ‘church’, ‘bed’, ‘table’, ‘hospital’, ‘market’, and ‘prison’, when these place are visited or used for their common purpose.
My Christian friends go to church every Sunday.
But ‘the’ is used with these words when we refer to them as a definite place, building or object rather than to the normal activity that goes on there.
I met my friend at the church.
7. before names of relations, like ‘father’, ‘mother’, ‘aunt’, ‘uncle’, ‘cook’ and ‘nurse’.
Father is very happy today.
8. before predicative nouns denoting a unique position that is normally held at one time by one person only.
He was elected chairman of the Board.


 54. Uses of ‘the’

หลักการใช้ the นำหน้า noun ที่ควรจำ มีดังนี้
1. W hen the object is unique.
The earth, the sky, the equator.
2. before superlatives
The best, the finest, the most
3. with proper nouns like ‘seas’, ‘rivers’, ‘group of island’, ‘chains of mountains’, ‘deserts’, ‘newspaper’, ‘buildings’, ‘religious books’, ‘gulfs’,.
The Arabian sea, The Ganges, The Taj Mahal,
4. before a proper noun, when it is qualified by an adjective.
The immortal Kalidas.
5. before an adjective, when the noun is hidden.
The rich should be kind and helping.
6. before musical instruments.
I know how to play the harmonium.
7. with a class of things.
The crow is a clever bird.
8. ‘The’ should be used before both comparative degrees when they are used in a sentence for proportion.
Higher we go, cooler we feel. Incorrect
The higher we go, the cooler we feel. Correct


 55. ‘What to speak of’ is incorrect; the correct expression is ‘not to speak of’.

ถ้าจะพูดว่า “ยังไม่ต้องพูดถึงขนาดเรื่องนั้นหรอก, ....” ให้ใช้ ‘Not to speak of’  ถ้าใช้  ‘What to speak of’ ผิด
What to speak of running, he cannot even walk. Incorrect
Not to speak of running, he cannot even walk. Correct


 56. When there is the sense of dislike, hesitation, risk, etc., in a sentence, we should use a gerund instead of a verb. A gerund is that form of the verb which ends in ‘ing’ and can be used in the place of a noun.

ถ้าใช้ verb พวก  dislike, hesitation, risk ฯลฯ, verb ที่ตามมาควรเป็น V+ing แทนที่จะเป็น to + verb
I dislike to see a film late in the night.
I dislike to seeing a film late in the night.
Young girls hesitate to talk to strangers.
Young girls hesitate talking to strangers.


 57.   ‘word by word’ is wrong.   ‘word for word’ is  correct expression.

 ถ้าจะพูดว่า “คำต่อคำ” ให้ใช้ word for word  ไม่ใช่ word by word

I can reproduce this lesson word by word. Incorrect
I can reproduce this lesson word for word. Correct


 58. ‘Since’, ‘because’, ‘as’, ‘for’, - all means ‘because’, but there is a different in their degree. ‘Since’ and ‘because’ are used for stronger cases and ‘as’ and ‘for’ for weak cases.

4 คำนี้ คือ ‘Since’, ‘because’, ‘as’, ‘for’  , ล้วนแปลว่า "เพราะว่า" แต่ความหมายต่างระดับกัน 

‘Since’ , ‘because’ ให้ความหมายที่หนักแน่นกว่า,

‘as’, ‘for’ ให้ความหมายที่เบากว่า

I respect him as he is my teacher. Incorrect
I respect him because he is my teacher. Correct


 59. Use of ‘when’ and ‘while’: Proper attention must be paid to these words. ‘when’ indicates a general sense and ‘while’ implies a time during the process of doing a work.

ให้สังเกตการใช้ when และ while,

when = เมื่อ 

while = ขณะที่

When learning to swim, one of the most important things is to relax. incorrect
While learning to swim, one of the most important things is to  relax.  correct


 60. Sometimes the error lies in the use of words. Proper attention must therefore, be given to appropriateness of words.

ควรเลือกใช้คำที่เหมาะสม ตามตัวอย่างในประโยค 

Prakash was leading a happy and leisurely life after his retirement from his service. Incorrect
Prakash was living a happy and leisurely life after his retirement from his service. Correct


 61. If in a sentence an apposition has been used, the verb will follow not the apposition but the noun or pronoun preceding it.

You, my son, is a good boy. Incorrect
You, my son, are a good boy. Correct


 62. Proper, abstract and material nouns have no plural except when they are used as common nouns.

The house is built of bricks. Incorrect
The house is built of bricks.  Correct


 63. Clauses in sentences beginning with a relative pronoun (who, which, that) take a verb according to the noun or pronoun preceding the relative pronoun.

clause ในประโยคที่ขึ้นต้นด้วย relative pronoun (who, which, that) ให้ใช้ verb ตาม noun หรือ pronoun ที่อยู่หน้า relative pronoun นั้น ๆ  

It is I who has done it. Incorrect
It is I who have done it. Correct


 64. The relative pronoun should be near as possible to its antecedent so that no ambiguity arises.

relative pronoun ที่ขยาย noun ตัวใด ก็ให้อยู่ใกล้ noun ตัวนั้นมากที่สุด  เพื่อป้องกันการเข้าใจสับสน

The boy is my cousin who stood first in the mile race.
The boy, who stood first in the mile race, is my cousin.


 65. When two singular nouns joined by ‘and’ are preceded by ‘each’ or ‘every’ the pronoun used for them is singular.

Each man and each boy is responsible for their action. Incorrect
Each man and each boy is responsible for his action. Correct


 66. Sometimes a pronoun is used where it is not required at all.

บางครั้ง บางประโยคใส่ pronoun ลงไป ทั้ง ๆ ที่ไม่จำเป็นต้องใส่

He being an M.A., he is qualified for the post. Incorrect
He, being an M.A., is qualified for the post. Correct


 67. If a pronoun comes after a preposition it should be used in the objective case.

ถ้า pronoun ตามหลัง preposition,  ต้องใช้ในรูปเป็น กรรม 

Between you and I neither of us is correct. Incorrect
Between you and me neither of us is correct. Correct


 68. When a pronoun come after ‘like and unlike’ it takes objective case.

ถ้า pronoun ตามหลัง like และ unlike จะต้องใช้ในรูปกรรม

A man like I will not do it. Incorrect
A man like me will not do it. Correct


 69. A pronoun takes an objective case after ‘let’.

pronoun ที่ตามหลัง let ต้องใช้ในรูปกรรม 

Let I do it. Incorrect
Let me do it. Correct


 70. Pronoun joined by ‘and’ remain in the same case.

pronoun ที่เชื่อมด้วย and ไม่ต้องเปลี่ยนรูป 

He and her are brother and sister. Incorrect
He and she are brother and sister. Correct
He and me are friends. Incorrect
He and I are friends. Correct


 71. When pronouns of second person and third person are used as subjects, the pronoun following them will be according to the second person pronoun.

ถ้า  pronoun บุรุษที่ 2 (คือ you) และบุรุษที่ 3 (เช่น he, she) ใช้ร่วมกันเป็น subject, pronoun ที่ตามมาจะต้องสอดคล้องกับ pronoun บุรุษที่ 2

You and he must bring his books. Incorrect
You and he must bring your books. Correct


 72. When pronouns of second person and first person are used as subjects, the pronoun following them will be first person plural form.

เมื่อใช้ pronoun บุรุษที่ 2 (คือ you คนเดียว, หรือ you หลายคน)     และ pronoun บุรุษที่ 1 (คือ เอกพจน์ - I หรือพหูพจน์ - We) เป็นประธานของประโยค, pronoun ที่ตามมาจะต้องสอดคล้องกับ pronoun บุรุษที่ 1 พหูพจน์

You and I must finish your work in time. Incorrect
You and I must finish our work in time. Correct


 73. ‘But’ is also used as a relative pronoun. When a sentence has a negative noun or pronoun, ‘but’ can be used with it. In this case ‘but’ means: who not; that not.

Here was none but laughed to see the joker.
Here the meaning of ‘but laughed’ is ‘who did not laugh’.
There is no bird but flies.
‘But files’ means ‘that does not fly’.


 74. The relative pronoun ‘that’ is used in preference to ‘who’ or ‘which’ after adjectives in the superlative degree.

ใช้ relative pronoun “that” ดีกว่าที่จะใช้ “who” หรือ “which” ตามหลัง adjective ชั้นสุด (superlative)

The wisest man who ever lived made mistakes. Incorrect
The wisest man that ever lived made mistakes. Correct
This is the best which we can do. Incorrect
This is the bestthat we can do. Correct


 75. The relative pronoun ‘that’ is also used in preference to ‘who’ and ‘which’ after the words ‘all’, ‘same’, ‘none’, ‘nothing’ and (the) ‘only’.

ใช้ relative pronoun “that” ดีกว่าที่จะใช้ “who” หรือ “which” ตามหลัง  all, same, none, nothing  และ (the) only

He is the same man who he has seen. Incorrect
He is the same man that he has seen. Correct
Man is the only animal who can talk. Incorrect
Man is the only animal that can talk. Correct


 76. The same rule applies after the interrogative pronoun ‘who’ and ‘what’.

ใช้หลักเกณฑ์ข้างต้น กับ who และ what ซึ่งใช้เป็น pronoun ขึ้นประโยคเพื่อตั้งคำถาม

What is there which I do not know? Incorrect
What is there that I do not know?  Correct


 77. When there are two antecedents, a man and an animal or two things before the relative pronoun, we should use ‘that’.

The man and his dog which passed through this road were  killed. incorrect

The man and his dog that passed through this road were killed. Correct


78. The case of the noun or pronoun preceding or succeeding the verb ‘to be’ should be the same.

It is him who came to see us. Incorrect
It is he who came to see us. Correct
It is me who caught the thief. Incorrect
It is I who caught the thief. Correct


 79. when two qualities of a person or thing compared ‘ more’ or ‘less’ is used before the adjective and the adjective following them take positive degree.

Suman is better than brave. Incorrect
Suman is more good than brave. Correct


 80. When two or more adjectives are used to show the qualities of the same man or thing, al the adjectives must be in the same degree.

Sita is more intelligent and wise than Rita. Incorrect
Sita is more intelligent and wiser than Rita. Correct


 81. ‘Very’ is used with adjectives in the positive degree and with present participles.

ใช้ very ขยาย adjective ขั้นปกติ และใช้กับ present participle

He is much stronger man. Incorrect
He is a very strong man. Correct
It is a man interesting book. Incorrect
It is very interesting book. Correct
‘Much’ is used with adjectives in the comparative degree and with past participles.

ใช้ much  ขยาย adjective ขั้นกว่า  และใช้กับ past participle
He is very stronger than I am. Incorrect
He is much stronger than I am. Correct
I am very obliged to my friend. Incorrect
I am much obliged to my friend. Correct


 82. To show equality ‘as’ is used before and after the adjective.

วาง as ไว้หน้าและหลัง adjective เพื่อใช้เปรียบเทียบความเท่าเทียมกัน

I can run as fast, if not faster, than you. Incorrect
I can run as fast as, if not faster, than you. Correct


 83. Certain adjectives do not admit of comparison and thus they always remain in the ‘positive degree’.

adjective บางตัว ใช้เปรียบเทียบไม่ได้ จึงมีแค่ขั้นปกติ ไม่มีขั้นกว่าและขั้นสุด

‘Absolute’, ‘annual’, ‘chief’, ‘circular’, ‘complete’, ‘entire’, ‘extreme’, ‘excellent’, ‘full’, ‘impossible’ ‘perfect’, ‘right’, ‘round’, ‘unique’, ‘universal’, ‘whole’, etc.


 84. ‘More than one’ indicates a plural sense, but it is treated as a sort of compound of one. Thus it agrees with a singular noun and takes a singular verb.

ข้อนี้ เขาอธิบายว่า more than one แม้นัยจะชี้ว่าหลาย แต่มันเป็นคำประสมที่แสดงความเป็นหนึ่ง จึงถือว่าเป็น noun เอกพจน์และต้องใช้ verb เอกพจน์  ผมรู้สึกว่าคำอธิบายเช่นนี้ทะแม่งและไม่เห็นด้วย เมื่อค้นหาคำอธิบายจากที่อื่น จึงได้ข้อสรุปว่า มันน่าจะขึ้นอยู่กับความหมายที่ใช้ในแต่ละกรณี เช่นคำอธิบายที่  ลิงก์นี้

More than one employees were killed in the accident. Incorrect

More than one employees was killed in the accident. Correct


85. A verb must agree with its subject and not with the complement.

 verb จะต้องผันตามประธาน, ไม่ใช่ผันตาม complement (complement คือกลุ่มของ adjective หรือ noun ที่ตามหลัง verb และทำหน้าที่ขยาย ประธาน) 

-ข้อนี้น่าสนใจมากครับ ผมเองก็เผลอผิดบ่อย ๆ - 

Our only guide at night were the stars. Incorrect
Our only guide at night w as the stars. Correct


86. If the plural subject denotes a definite amount or quantity taken as a whole, the verb is singular.

Forty miles are a good distance. Incorrect
Forty miles is a good distance. Correct
Two – thirds of the book were rubbish. Incorrect
Two – third of the book was rubbish. Correct


 87. The plural ‘heaps and ‘lots’ used colloquially for a great amount take a singular verb unless a plural noun with ‘of’ is added.

There are lots of book. Incorrect
There is lots of book. Correct
There is lots of books to read. Incorrect
There are lots of books to read. Correct


 88. When qualified by ‘each’ or ‘every’ two singular subjects, if even connected by ‘and’, take a singular, if even connected by ‘and’, take a singular verb.

Each boy and every girl were given rewards. Incorrect
Each boy and every girl was given rewards correct


 89. The following Vern are always followed by an infinitive:

verb ต่อไปนี้ให้ตามด้วย to

‘decide’, ‘plans’, ‘expect’, ‘fail’, ‘hope’, ‘intend’, ‘learn’, ‘promise’, ‘refuse’, ‘want’, ‘agree’, ‘consent’, ‘try’, ‘love’, etc.

I refuse meeting him. Incorrect
I refuse to meet him. Correct


 90. the following verbs and phrases should be followed by gerund which is a verbal noun: ‘enjoy’, ‘admit’, ‘deny’, ‘appreciate’, ‘regret’, ‘avoid’, ‘consider’, ‘stop’, ‘looking forward to’, ‘accustomed to’, ‘is used to’, ‘do not mind’, ‘object to’, etc.

Verb ที่ตาม Verb และ phrase ต่อไปนี้  ให้เติม ing

I am looking forward to receive your replay. Incorrect
I am looking forward to receiving your replay. Correct
He is used to work hard. Incorrect
He is used to working hard. Correct


91. The word ‘to’ is frequently used with the infinitive, but is not an essential part of it. For example, after certain verb (‘bid’ ‘let’, ‘make’, ‘need’, ‘dare’, ‘see’, ‘hear’,) we use the infinitive without ‘to’.

verb บางคำ  - verb ที่ตามมา ไม่ต้องมี to นำหน้า ตามตัวอย่าง

Bid him to go there. Incorrect
Bid him go t here. Correct
Make him to stand. Incorrect
Make him stand. Correct
I saw him to cry. Incorrect
I saw him cry. Correct


 92. The infinitive is used without ‘to’ after ‘had better’, ‘had rather’, ‘would rather’, ‘sooner than’, and ‘rather than’,

verb ที่ตามหลัง ‘had better’, ‘had rather’, ‘would rather’, ‘sooner than’, และ  ‘rather than’ ไม่ต้องมี  to นำหน้า

You had better to ask permission form him. Incorrect
You had better ask permission from him. Correct

 


 94. After the word ‘know’, ‘how’ or ‘when’ should be used before using an infinitive.

หลังคำว่า know ควรใช้ how หรือ when ก่อนเริ่มใช้ infinitive

I know to write French. Incorrect
I know how to write French. Correct


95. A verb may take an infinitive or a gerund according to its implication. If the verb indicates a purpose, an infinitive should be used and if the verb indicates a cause, a gerund should be used.

He went to school for seeing the principal. Incorrect
He went to school for see the principal. Correct
He was turned out to copy answers. Incorrect
He was turned out for copying answers. Correct


 96. adverb ‘as’ is not used with verbs like ‘appointed’, ‘elected’, ‘considered’, ‘called’, but it is used with ‘regard’,

หลังคำว่า regard ใช้ as  แต่หลัง ‘appointed’, ‘elected’, ‘considered’, ‘called’ ไม่ต้องมี as

He was elected as President of our society. Incorrect
He was elected President of our society. Correct
I regard Ramesh my friend. Incorrect
I regard Ramesh as my friend. Correct


 97. After the verb ‘doubt’ ‘that’ should not be used. ‘if’ or ‘whether’ should be used in its place.

คำว่า “สงสัยว่า” ควรใช้  “doubt if”  หรือ “doubt whether”  ไม่ควรใช้ “doubt that” 

I doubt that Ravi will come. Incorrect
I doubt if Ravi will come. Correct


 98. Often a mistake is committed in the use of adjectives and adverbs. An adjective is correctly used with the verb when some quality of the subject, rather than of the action of the verb, is to be expressed.

ข้อนี้ผมขออธิบายโดยยกตัวอย่างเพิ่มเติมสักนิดนะครับ คือว่า verb ที่เกี่ยวกับความรู้สึก    ถ้ามันใช้บรรยายลักษณะของประธาน (subject) มากกว่าที่จะเป็นโชว์การกระทำของ verb ถ้าเป็นอย่างนี้ คำที่ตามมานั้นขอให้เป็น adjective, ไม่ใช่ adverb  เช่น

 Look เมื่อแปลว่า “เมื่อดูแล้วรู้สึกว่า” – ไม่ได้แปลว่า “มองดู”

 We looked very alike. – พวกเราดูแล้วคล้ายกันมาก

Sound เมื่อแปลว่า “เมื่อฟังแล้วรู้สึกว่า” ไม่ได้แปลว่า “ส่งเสียง”

That sounds a bit technical. – นั่นฟังแล้วออกจะเป็นเรื่องเทคนิคนิดหน่อย

Smell เมื่อแปลว่า “มีกลิ่น” ไม่ได้แปลว่า “ดม”

It smells delicious.  – มันมีกลิ่นน่าทาน (อร่อย)

Taste  เมื่อแปลว่า “มีรส” ไม่ได้แปลว่า “ชิม”

The leaves taste bitter. – ใบไม้มีรสขม 

The flowers smelt sweetly. Incorrect
The flowers smelt sweet. Correct

 


 ในภาษาพูด เมื่อมีการใช้ question tag เพื่อถามขอการยืนยัน  มีเรื่องต้องจำ 2 เรื่อง คือ

ถ้าข้อความเป็นบอกเล่า, tag จะต้องเป็น n’t + subject

Tag จะต้องใช้ verb form เหมือนกับประโยคหลัก

99. It is a common practice is conversation to make a statement and ask for confirmation; as, ‘It’s very hot, isn’t it? Two points are to be kept in mind. If the statement positive, the pattern will be

Auxiliary + n’t + subject.
Examples:
It is raining, is it? Incorrect
It is raining, isn’t it? Correct
Your are not busy, aren’t you? Incorrect
You are not busy, are you? Correct
The point to note here is that the question tag will always have the same verb from which we have in the main statement:
I have finished my work, didn’t I? Incorrect
I have finished my work, have n’t? Correct


 100. There are certain common errors which should be avoided.

(a) ‘The two first’ is a meaningless expression for it implies that two things may be first. We should say ‘the first two’.
The two first chapters of the novel are dull.
The first two chapters of the novel are dull.
(b) ‘Only’ should be placed immediately before the word it qualifies.
He only lost his ticket in the stampede. Incorrect
Only he lost his ticket in the stampede. Correct
(c) An infinitive verb should not be spit.
I request you to kindly to help me. Incorrect
I request you kindly to help me. Correct
(d) Care should be taken in the use of verbs.
The doctor saw the pulse of the patient. Incorrect
The doctor felt the pulse of the patient. Correct
He told the truth. Incorrect
He spoke the truth. Correct
Do not speak a lie. Incorrect
Do not tell a lie. Correct
Our team made a goal. Incorrect
Our team scored a goal. Correct
He is taking a bath. Incorrect
He is having a bath. Correct
I tell my prayers in the morning. Incorrect
I say my prayers in the morning. Correct

 

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  ถ้าต้องการ คลิกดู คำแปลศัพท์  ทุกคำ-ทุกเว็บ-ทันทีดยไม่ต้องเข้าเว็บ ดิก

 เชิญอ่านวิธีคลิกติดตั้ง add-on: ดิก อังกฤษ ไทย  • Google Translate  • ดิก อังกฤษ - อังกฤษ 

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